The History Of Hail

There are many ruins and monuments in many places in Hail region which let many travelers and easterners com to visit the area. In 1131 A.H, Abbas Al-Makki Al-Hassani visited Hail. He said that there was a village. It was called Hail in Shammar Mountain. Hail had palm trees, springs, wells, farms, flowers and birds. The people in Hail were generous. In 1261 A.H. the traveler Allen visited Hail and he wrote about its wells and farms and about Aja and Salma mountains. Nobody can define a certain date of Hail town existence but it was existed really before the Christ birthday. There are many Thamudi, Nabaty and Habashy ruins. One of the most famous tribes inhabited Hail, Tai tribe before Islam. Hatim Al-Ta'e was one of the tribe and he was known as a symbol of generosity. Mr. Fahad Al-Ali Al-Auraefy in his book "Hail" wrote that the existence of Hail was about more than one thousand years in the past. Al-Sowaifla the lower part of Hail, Al-Rabeea and Al-Jar in addition to some mosques which had Al-Khebla towards Jerusalem and same temples before Islam. Hail had its importance in the history through its unique position and some easterners described it as a key of the desert. Its location on the cross roads to Iraq and Al-Sham where the ancient civilizations such as Babel and Assyrians and it was after that the pass way to the Islamic army to the north. This exceptional position and the natural defence of place formed of mountain and sand in addition to the fertile land which is not saved by the desert made Hail and its region as a part of history movement along ages.
In spite of historians records, the area still have many of history tales which are covered with its ruins.
Hail is located on the old caravans roads which cross Al-Nofood Desert from Al-Jouf and Ryhand Valley to Najd and Zubayda route. Zubayda route was the way that pilgrims from Al-Kufa in Iraq to Mecca ( Makkah Al-Mokarama ) used it. Regardless to the language meaning, we will refer to some tales about the meaning of Hail in this short research. Hail represented a hindrance between the middle of the Arabian Peninsula and Iraq or among Arabia, the Romans land, Nabatian land and Al-Sham. The name of Hail maybe connected with Al-Ader'a valle, during the flood of the valley, it made a black and separation between the people who lived between the two mountains. That opinion was more accepted by the researchers and writers.
  • Abbas Al-Mousawi in his book said that Hail is Najd Sham.
  • Al-Bakri said that it was a place in Tai mountain.
  • Abu Sayed Al-Dareer said that Hail was a bottom of a valley near Aja.
  • Yaqot Al-Hamawi said that Hail was a valley in Ali mountain.
  • Al-Hejri said that Hail was a valley which close the area between sand and Aja which was known as a village on Al-Eder'a eastern side which is called now Al-Sowaifla and Hamad Al-Jassar agreed with him ( Mouzel ) that Hatim's village was Al-Sowaifla which was the centre of Hail and the Tai people settled in it.
Bin Jareer's history book ( Manna ) referring to Aja mountain in a story mentioned that Al-Tarmah Bin Odai Al-Ta'e asked Al-Hussain Bin Ali Bin Abi Taleb when Al-Hussain stood against Yazeed Bin Abi Sufian so that to go with him to Manna where Tai refused about the kings of Ghassan, Hemier and Al-Numan Bin Al-Monther.
Population across history
The historians assure that Tai people were the first people who settled in the area after Marab dam destruction but others said that other tribes lived in Hail area before Tai tribe such as:
1. Some studies showed that the extinct Arab ( Thamoud ) lived in the area.
2. Bani Assad Bin Khosayma, some resources said that Tai tribe settled near them and stole the area of Aja and Salma from Bani Assad.
3. Ghatfan tribe ( Adnanian tribe ) in the south until Tai until Tai mountains.
4. Some other tribes such as Bani Kelab and some of Bain Tameem Adnanian big tribe.
Hessam Bin Abdul Aziz Al-khuraisey in his book; Shammar tribe to the historian Ahmad Al-Mouh who said that in his tale that there were indications about the existence of a state which was called Shammar in Najran in the south of Saudi Arabia in the old ages. He refers to a book called "Arab History" which was authorized by Zaher Bin Ahmed Obaid Al-Khazrajy Al-Ansary pages 139 that includes a research in a title "Shammar Civilzation" in about 275 pages. Shammar is a name of all Tai tribe even Aja and Salma mountains called Shammar mountains. However, many of Bani Tamim had settled between the two mountains land and many of Tamim tribe immigrated to Gaffar in Hail area. Many families of Bani Tamim live in different villages in Hail region such as Romman. These families are known of their generosity and bravery. All tribes and people in Hail lived as one family. There are different sayings concerning Hatim Al-Ta'e tomb. Some say that Hatim was buried in Al-Karya near Al-Rabaea district. Others say that Hatim's grave is in Tawaren and Awarrid mountain where Hatim's grave lies in the north of it. Hammad Al-Jasser`said in the dictionary that Sablat is one of Tai mountains abd their places were the best in the Arabia and Tai land was the strongest places. So, the tribe stayed united before Islam and other Adnanian tirbes joined it. They became allied to Tai tribe. Assad and Ghatafan tribes protected the area from the west and the south. Tai became able to conquer other Adnanian tribes. Hail was protected of the outside conquerors because of the natural strong place of Tai mountains. From the east, Hail zone was surround with Al-Dahna desert where the kingdom of Al-Herra was in Iraq. From the north there was Al-Ghassassinah kingdom. Al-Nofood desert separate that kingdom of Hail region. When Al-Muharraq wanted to conquer Hail area ( Tai's land ) he asked Hatim where he should come from ? Hatim realized the difficulty of conquering Tai land and he said: "He didn't know the entrances of Sablat".